Jazz et Gender Studies

 

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Jazz et Gender Studies 

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Le 22 décembre 2013

Jazz et Gender Studies

In Austin, Texas, in 2002, a group of artists, activists, and academics led by performance studies scholar Omi Osun Joni L. Jones formed the Austin Project (tAP), which meets annually in order to provide a space for women of color and their allies to build relationships based on trust, creativity, and commitment to social justice by working together to write and perform work in the jazz aesthetic.

Inspired by this experience, this book is both an anthology of new writing and a sourcebook for those who would like to use creative writing and performance to energize their artistic, scholarly, and activist practices. Theoretical and historical essays by Omi Osun Joni L. Jones describe and define the African American tradition of art-making known as the jazz aesthetic, and explain how her own work in this tradition inspired her to start tAP. Source

Jazz et Gender Studies

Description

In jazz circles, players and listeners with “big ears” hear and engage complexity in the moment, as it unfolds. Taking gender as part of the intricate, unpredictable action in jazz culture, this interdisciplinary collection explores the terrain opened up by listening, with big ears, for gender in jazz. Essays range from a reflection on the female boogie-woogie pianists who played at Café Society in New York during the 1930s and 1940s to interpretations of how the jazzman is represented in Dorothy Baker’s novel Young Man with a Horn (1938) and Michael Curtiz’s film adaptation (1950). Taken together, the essays enrich the field of jazz studies by showing how gender dynamics have shaped the production, reception, and criticism of jazz culture.

Scholars of music, ethnomusicology, American studies, literature, anthropology, and cultural studies approach the question of gender in jazz from multiple perspectives. One contributor scrutinizes the tendency of jazz historiography to treat singing as subordinate to the predominantly male domain of instrumental music, while another reflects on her doubly inappropriate position as a female trumpet player and a white jazz musician and scholar. Other essays explore the composer George Russell’s Lydian Chromatic Concept as a critique of mid-twentieth-century discourses of embodiment, madness, and black masculinity; performances of “female hysteria” by Les Diaboliques, a feminist improvising trio; and the BBC radio broadcasts of Ivy Benson and Her Ladies’ Dance Orchestra during the Second World War. By incorporating gender analysis into jazz studies,Big Ears transforms ideas of who counts as a subject of study and even of what counts as jazz.

Contributors: Christina Baade, Jayna Brown, Farah Jasmine Griffin, Monica Hairston, Kristin McGee, Tracy McMullen, Ingrid Monson, Lara Pellegrinelli, Eric Porter, Nichole T. Rustin, Ursel Schlicht, Julie Dawn Smith, Jeffrey Taylor, Sherrie Tucker, João H. Costa Vargas

About The Author(s)

Sherrie Tucker is Associate Professor of American Studies at the University of Kansas. She is the author of Swing Shift: “All-Girl” Bands of the 1940s, also published by Duke University Press.

Jazz et Gender Studies

Un site autour d'un livre, la représentation du genre et de la race dans les films américains et à la télévision, 1920-1960, Kristin McGee 2012

Jazz et Gender Studies

Table des matières

le 2 septembre

Sherrie Tucker A Feminist Perspective on New Orleans JazzWomen



Grand intérêt de ce livre relevant des "Gender Studies", les documents sur la naissance du jazz à la Nouvelle-Orléans à partir des années 1880, et le "rôle central" des femmes.

"This is a study of women in New Orleans jazz, contracted by the National Park Service, completed between 2001 and 2004. Women have participated in numerous ways, and in a variety of complex cultural contexts, throughout the history of jazz in New Orleans.
While we do see traces of women’s participation in extant New Orleans jazz histories, we seldom see women presented as central to jazz culture. Therefore, they tend to appear to occupy minor or supporting roles, if they appear at all. This Research Study uses a feminist perspective to increase our knowledge of women and gender in New Orleans jazz history, roughly between 1880 and 1980, with an emphasis on the earlier years.
"

Le sommaire donne une idée de ce livre, qui est en ligne > http://www.nps.gov/jazz/historyculture/upload/New_Orleans_Jazzwomen_RS-2.pdf

"Introduction ....................................................................................1
Why Study Women in Jazz?................................................1
Congo Square, a case study ....................................................3
What does it mean to study Gender? .....................................6
Goals of this Research Study ............................................12
PART I: HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL CONTEXT .........................21
Time-line: New Orleans Jazzwomen: 1890-1990..............................22
Historical Overview.................................................................36
Pre-Jazz New Orleans.........................................................37
1890s: Emergence of Jazz .........................................48
Redistricting of Storyville .............................................58
Gender and instruments .......................................................61
Women and piano in early jazz bands ...................................63
Jazz funerals ................................................................72
Religion, women, and jazz......................................................79
Great Migration.........................................................................83
Cabarets and theaters .............................................................88
All-woman bands ......................................................................90
Educators ..........................................................................92
New Orleans Revival ..........................................................94
Conclusion.......................................................................................99
Bibliography .....................................................................110
PART II: SELECTED BIOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES ..............................115

Dans cette étude, le chapitre "Gender and Instruments" pages 61-63 (voir ci-dessous) discute de la présence des femmes dans les brass-band (fanfares) à la Nouvelle-Orleans de la fin du 19ème à la fin du 20ème. La participation des hommes y domine, mais n'exclue pas dans certains la présence des femmes, aux tambours, à la trompette, au trombone, y compris dans les églises. Ce phénomène s'est accru après la seconde guerre mondiale. La famille de Lester Young n'était pas de la Nouvelle-Orléans, mais y jouait souvent, et sa propre sœur Irma, née en 1912, jouait du saxophone alto.

L'impression que tout cela me donne, c'est que la société du spectacle commençant à poindre pour un public élargi voire populaire, avec la reproduction à la radio, au cinéma ou sur disques (cf Walter Benjamin), alors les femmes ont été poussées à cantonner leurs carrières artistiques dans certains rôles, dont danseuse, chanteuse... rien qui soit de tout temps inscrit dans la nature féminine, mais bel et bien une opportunité réciproque de faire carrière d'un côté et d'augmenter les profits de l'autre. Quand on sait comment était payés, ou pas, les musiciens de jazz participants à un enregistrement, on a une idée de l'exploitation dont ils étaient l'objet.
Voir sur ce point dans mon livre les témoignages de musiciens :
>
http://patlotch.free.fr/text/1e9b5431-113.html - économie quand tu nous tiens
>
http://patlotch.free.fr/text/1e9b5431-115.html - les choix des musiciens
>
http://patlotch.free.fr/text/1e9b5431-122.html - l'industrie culturelle du Spectacle

Je n'ai pas retrouvé le passage concernant les disques de Billie Holiday sur lesquels elle ne touchait plus rien, le contrat spécifiant une somme forfaitaire à l'enregistrement, sans suite sur les ventes, pratique qui s'est poursuivie jusque dans les années 60-70, ce dont témoigne Albert Ayler et d'autres. Peut-être au-delà, et encore...
« The long history of military bands in New Orleans contributed to the association of brass bands with masculinity and men; and perhaps even shored up the long history of the piano as a sign of middle-class feminine respectability for women and as a sign of “sissy” for men.

Yet, like so many other generalizations, these gender associations were far from static in turn-of-the-century New Orleans.

While it is true that women were less likely to play brass instruments in New Orleans marching bands then men–some did. A question deserving research would be one focused around the question: which women? New Orleans jazz historian Karl Koenig, who has made a concerted effort to include women in his studies, found that in Houma, Louisiana, a small town southwest of New Orleans, the town band included a number of women.

A local study of gender and music in Houma (in comparison with towns whose brass bands did not include women) would be one place to look for clues about one cultural trajectory of women’s musical participation and status. While little is known about them, four women appear in a 1928 photo of the Tonic Triad Band, an African American New Orleans brass band.

Sylvester Francis reports that women did not appear in brass bands until after World War II, after which they did so infrequently.

The topic of women in New Orleans brass bands deserves further study. Oral history and photographic research may turn up more leads. Interestingly, women have appeared in traditional New Orleans brass bands in recent years. Diane Lyle-Smith, trumpet and flugelhorn, who taught at Xavier University from 1980-85, became the first woman to play in the Young Tuxedo Brass band.

In 1992, students at St. Mary’s Academy started an all-female traditional brass band. While still in high school, the Pinettes Brass Band played the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival, as well as weddings and funerals. Several years after graduating, they regrouped, recording their CD, “Who You Gonna Call? ... the Pinettes Brass Band!” (AGB Records, 2002), and appearing both locally and internationally.

I have mentioned that Dolly Adams’s mother, Olivia Douroux, was a trumpet player. It seems significant that her brother, Manuel Manetta, played piano, but was only able to take lessons (from music teacher Laura Albert) when his sister lost interest.

She, in fact, played trumpet duets with her husband Louis Douroux, at private parties. While it was acceptable for Louis to play his trumpet professionally, and not acceptable for Olivia, it is significant that it was acceptable for both to play trumpets at gatherings, and that their daughter (born 1904) wouldbecome a jazz pianist and band leader who doubled on bass and drums. The gender organization of instrument and genre seems more nuanced and dynamic in the Manetta and Douroux families than an analysis that said simply that it was not considered proper for women to play brass instruments or jazz in Creole-of-color communities. Olivet Depass (daughter of Lucille and Arnold DePass) played trumpet, but was discouraged from playing in public when her mother didn’t like her to travel in the wee hours of the morning.

Antonia Gonzales played the trumpet in the brothel she operated. Mother Catherine Seals played trombone in the church services at which she officiated. Irma Young (born 1912), sister of tenor saxophonist Lester Young, also played the saxophone, and lived in New Orleans as a child. Though not primarily based in New Orleans, the Young Family Band, which included Lester and Irma’s mother and aunt, did play there frequently.»
*
A la suite des études proprement dites, se multiplient livres et conférences...

Un résumé historique, les Allumés du jazz 2011
PETITE HISTOIRE DES FEMMES (INSTRUMEN- TISTES) DANS LE JAZZ

« Parallèlement au déferle- ment régulier de chanteuses dans les bacs de ce qui subsiste de rayons jazz, on assiste à l'apparition tout aussi régulière de musiciennes accédant à une réelle notoriété. Le relais médiatique du phénomène par les revues spécialisées (ou non) laisse ainsi penser que, addition faite des vocalistes et des instrumentistes, le jazz se féminise.

Or, c'est un fait, qu'un sur vol de la littérature, des dictionnaires et autres encyclopédies qui jalonnent l'histoire du jazz, prouve à l'évidence qu'à l'exception de quelques grandes voix le panthéon du jazz n'affiche qu'une très pauvre représentation féminine.

En témoigne aussi la récente anthologie « Les Géants du Jazz », proposée à ses lecteurs par le journal Le Monde : sur quarante élus, quatre chanteuses (Bessie Smith, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan). A ce niveau (les grands, les incontournables), la seule absence d'une Mary Lou Williams est proprement scandaleuse et montre bien comment, au fil du temps, silence et indifférence se sont ligués pour conserver au jazz sa suprématie masculine. Il suffit pourtant de remonter honnêtement le temps jusqu'aux plus lointaines origines du jazz pour y rencontrer nombre d'estimables et talentueuses instrumentistes. Suivez le guide...
» Suite > Les Allumés du Jazz 2011 http://www.allumesdujazz.com/Journal/articles/FEMMES_DE_JAZZ_37

Bibliothèque de Paris, Lady Jazz
http://b14-sigbermes.apps.paris.fr/userfiles/file/Publications/Femmes&Jazz.pdf

1 - LES CLASSIQUES INCONTOURNABLES
2 - LES VOIX ACTUELLES
2–1 LA TRADITION REVISITÉE
2–2 DES CHANTEUSES PLUS FRONDEUSES
3 - LES INSTRUMENTISTES
3–1 LES CHEFS D’ORCHESTRE
3–2 LES PIANISTES
3-3 LES SAXOPHONISTES, TROMPETTISTES, TROMBONISTES
3–4 LES HARPISTES
3–5 LES CONTREBASSISTES
3–6 LES BATTEUSES
3–7 LES GUITARISTES
3–8 AUTRES INSTRUMENTS
4 - DANS LA CONSTELLATION DU JAZZ… QUELQUES FEMMES REMARQUABLES
Conférence animée par Jean-Paul RICARD.
Une histoire des femmes instrumentistes dans le Jazz.
JAZZ STORY N°2 "JAZZ LADIES"
DATE : Jeudi 24 octobre 2013
LIEU : AJMI-LA MANUTENTION (Avignon 84000)
HORAIRE : 20h30
TARIF : Entrée libre, ouvert à tous.
> http://marseille.aujourdhui.fr/etudiant/sortie/jazz-story-n-2-jazz-ladies.html


le Dim 1 Déc 2013



"This impressive new study by Australia's most distinguished jazz historian revises the place of modern music in Australian society and places jazz at the centre of the twentieth century cultural shift. Bruce Johnson shows how African-American popular music was the primary musical vehicle for Australian modernity and the advancement of women; how the culture was shaped by such innovations as the microphone, recordings and the film industry. His hidden history also reveals the extraordinary impact achieved internationally by Australian jazz musicians since the earliest days. Dispersed among the chapters are interludes from Johnson's life as a 'common soldier in the trenches' of jazz -- engaging and timely reminders to the reader of the jazz community and camaraderie that shares a common language around the world."